PROCESS OF COMMUNICATION
For existence of the society communication is inevitable. Because of the communication human relation is exists &develop. Communication is itself is a process because it is continues it never end. If we alone also we communicate our self.
Communication is a process by that we can share; exchange our ideas, facts, feelings, knowledge etc to the receiver. If the message sent by source is must be meaningful & it should be understand by the receiver then only communication becomes more effective.
“According to Rogers & Shoemaker, communication is the process by which messages are transferred from a source to receiver”.
By seeing definition we can understand that communication is never ending process. And it is a transmission of information ideas, skills, emotions etc from the sender to receiver.
KEY ELEMENTS OF COMMUNICATION PROCESS:
The communication process is made up of key components of communication .A series of actions are take place in the process of communication. The communication process is begins with sender & ends with the receiver.All the elements of communication are related to each other.(Kundra .S .The process of communication,2005)
v The communicator
Communicator is one who starts the process. Communicator may an individual, group or organization. This source is initially responsible for the success of the message.
“The written words, spoken words & non verbal language selected are paramount in ensuring the receiver interprets the message as intended by the sender”.(Burnett & Dollar ,1989).
Sender gives meaning full messages to a specific group; individual etc.Sender gives messages to receiver in such a manner that he could understand & response to that then only we say that the communication becomes effective but in all communication it is not possible that the receiver is understand & response message.
He is the key factor for the effectiveness of the communication process. Communicator can be a teacher, worker; leader etc .A good communicator must be following things they are
Sender must know his objectives; audience channels for his message his limitations etc.
Communicator must be interested in his audience & he also improves his own communication skill.
He expresses his message in a way that audience should understand his message.
But in all times it is not possible that receiver is understands the message because of barriers in communication.
v Message or content
. A message is a information which should be clearly understand to the receiver &communicator wishes his audience to receive, understand, accept &act upon .But sometimes barriers will disturbs the both receiver & sender of the message. The message could be any scientific information, sanitation, description of actions taken by individuals, groups or committees etc.
A message is good when the message is clear, simple, specific timely applicable etc. It is easy to understand the messages given by the sender when the communicator make message very simple as lay man also understand the messages.& also time is very important to understanding of the message .
v Channels of communication
If a sender gives a message through an appropriate channel its message reach the right receivers. &vice versa. Chanel is very important tool of the communicator. Channel is a necessary link between the sender & receiver. Communicator gets contact with the audience through the channel. As technology developed visual channels are developed now a day. But most of the channels are oral or written. Oral communication is very effective because of we get direct feedback from the oral communication. Sender must select such a channel to communication which will suit for particular type of communication. To make the communication more effective, channels should be used in the right way, at the right time & for the right audience& purpose.
For selection of the channels communicator must know the size of audience, nature, objective of the message. Some times there may be required combination of channels are used for the better understanding of the message. For example, if cricket is going on then, television, radio, news papers, and oral communication is used as channels of communication.
As the channels are the connecting links between communicators & receivers, they must effectively join together these two essential elements of the communication process.
v Treatment of message
Messages should be handling in a manner that it should be reach effectively to audience. Communicator must design the networks or techniques of presenting messages.(S. Kundra ,The process of Communication 2005, 73)because of the treatment ,message is clearly understand by the receiver. Treatment makes messages very accurate &effective. Message presentation is also very important for the clear understand of message. The communicator has to make many decisions, such as, whether he will make logical or emotional appeal in presentation of message. (S. Kundra, The process of Communication 2005, 73) He will conclude the speech or he leave the conclusion to the audience. Treatment of message makes communication more effective & specific.
v The Audience
A Good Communication is take place when Audience knows the communicator. For example in a group communication introduce of communicator, is because that audience must know the communicator & it will also helps the source credibility of communicator. Audience may be individual, group, students, farmers etc. Audience response is very important for the communication process. The homogeneity of the audience is one of cause for the successful of communication. Homogeneity of audience means they may be same age, same groups etc it will help the communicator to deliver the message .For example students in classroom are the same age &it will help the teacher to deliver the message.
Heterogeneity of the audience will create problem to the communicator.& it will give way to ineffective of the communication. The communicator must know the features of audience. Audience can be identified by their occupation, education qualification etc. Before making Planning of communication he must know the peoples need. Some times audience accepts message but does not act immediately .Audience act may be mental or physical action .Usually the response of the audience is in the form of gaining knowledge as understanding, change in practice or habit. Some time effect of the message to audience short term & long term.
If the audience is children the communicator will deal very carefully delivering of the message .Because they are not much bother about the message therefore communicator must be give very active.
Short term effect means audience habit will change for short span it is not continue till long period. And long term effect is that habit will change because of the message &it will remain in long span.
Thus response or action resulting from a communication is a complicated phenomenon & should be considered with care & preciseness (S. Kundra, The process of Communication 2005, 75)
Feedback refers to the response or reaction of the receiver to sender. (S. Kundra, The process of Communication 2005, 75)
Feed back is the final link in the chain of the communication process. After receiving a message a, the receiver responds in some way signals that response to the sender. The feedback may be in the form of spoken comment, a written message, a smile or some other actions etc.
“Even a lack of response, is in a sense, a form of response”. (Bovee&Thill, 1992)If message is clearly understand by the receiver then he gives the some response to the communicator then only communicator feels that his communication became an effective. Feedback influences the communication. Feedback may be negative or may be positive it depends upon the audience responds.
For example in group communication messages are sanded by the communicator & then audience may responds by clapping then the sender feels himself encouraged by that response. If receiver responds yawing then sender feels very bad about response of the receiver this is the negative feedback of the receiver.
In inter personal communication sender gets feedback in the spot that is why Inter personal communication is more effective. In mass communication it is very tough to give the feedback process because there is not direct is take place.
For example when we watching movie in television then we cannot give direct feedback to that movie that is why mass communication not effective communication like interpersonal communication.
Communication cycle is incomplete without feedback. By giving feedback sender will understands positive & negative sides of the message .By giving feedback sender is improve his communication skill. Feedback ultimately provides an opportunity for the sender to take corrective action to clarify a misunderstood message.
And also feedback will help to the judge his communicating skill. If they get negative feedback then they may change their communicating style.
For example if messages are in the form of theory then the receiver is give negative feedback then he must divert his topic in to general things it may help to the communicator to attract the receiver.
Absence of feedback may give rise to doubts in the minds of both sender & receiver.
“Feedback plays an important role by indicating significant communication barriers: differences in background, different interpretations of words, &differing emotional reactions.”(Bovee& Thill, 1992).
The communication process is the perfect guide toward achieving effective communication. When communication is take place then there is also some barriers will create some problems to communication process. Communication is the never ending process. And it is source for the development of relations among the people.(S.Kundra,process of communication)(management study guide.com)(utk ecu.com)